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Left behind women.

Left behind women.

Much has been reported on the plight of  workers migrating in droves to make a better living in the cities, but little attention has been given to the wives they leave behind. According to the All China Womens’ Federation, there are up to 50 million of these ‘left behind women’ in rural China.The impact of this rural exodus reaches every corner of these women’s lives, from their daily workload to their role in the family structure.


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Perhaps the most immediate effect of this exodus is the increased burden of domestic and farm work on the women left behind. The Harvard Asia Pacific review suggests that 60% of rural farm work is now done by women, compared to 40% in Africa and just 20% in the Americas (FAO 2011). Once the preserve of men, left behind women have to undertake tough manual labour to maintain their village lands. Additionally, women are still responsible for their traditional domestic duties, so are left with a double burden of farm work and domestic chores. Older generations are also involved, as much of the burden of childcare traditionally falls upon grandparents, as younger women are occupied working in the fields. It is this support from family members and the wider community that can change alleviate the double burden of left over women and help them gain independence.


The increased responsibility of left behind women has also led to increased independence and social standing in rural communities. With their husbands away, women take over as head of the household, making decisions independently and managing the household. Interestingly, left behind women who assume the leadership of the household are promoted to the same social position of male heads of households, a positive indicator for gender equality. The increased independence can be seen to empower rural women to further pursue positions of authority on a wider scale. According to Xinhua news agency, 2092 villages in Heilongjian prefecture alone are now governed by women. This is made all the more remarkable by the continued popularity of Confucianism and the strict patriarchal order it condones.


This empowerment seems to have also emerged in the commercial sector, with increasing numbers of rural women participating in commercial enterprises such as local textile and domestic businesses. Rural women are turning to township enterprises to supplement their income, with the state and charities offering loans to support them. According to China Daily, Yongren County alone has provided a total of 20.41 million yuan in preferential loans to left-behind women  since 2009  . Not only are women entering commercial workplace, but they are become entrepreneurs and business leaders. In the provinces of Jiangsu, Guangdong, Anhui, Fujian and Henan there are 2000-3000 female directors of township enterprises, Xinhua reports. The case of Li Jiyan of Yongren country illustrates well how women are changing their own lives through township enterprises. Li started her own embroidery business in 2009 after her husband left for the city and has not looked back since. Her annual production revenue is now more than 3 million yuan.


"Before I started my own business, my income was 2,000 to 3,000 yuan per year. Now I make 150,000 to 160,000 yuan a year," Li said, adding that all of the left-behind women in her village have joined her association to embroider. With the average annual rural income remaining at about 5000 yuan (Chinese National bureau of statistics), this kind of situation is far from widespread. However, more and more women are entering businesses: it is currently estimated about  65% of workers in textile and domestic enterprises are women.


However, a significant hurdle still to overcome is that of educational equality. Despite the increased empowerment of women, and an increase in the number of household led by women, there remains a significant gender gap in schooling. According to one study by Hannum and Park, among a group of 400 Junior High school aged children, girls were 39% more likely to have left school than boys. However, compared to 20 years ago this gender inequality is now both less pronounced and also only appears when children are older and at a later stage of their education. Thus it would appear that although the migration of men to the cities has had a positive impact on the independence of some rural women, it has yet to significantly permeate into the realm of education.


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While the number of success stories in undoubtedly increasing, the situation of left behind women is still a double edged sword – they have an increased double burden but also benefit from increased independence and empowerment. While the rural lifestyle may be attractive to some, the bright lights of the big city are still a huge draw. The promise of a more independent life away from home, and a vastly increased salary potential still draws huge numbers of young women to China’s urban metropolises in pursuit of a better life.


While it perhaps too early to come to a definite conclusion, especially given the vastly different experiences of left behind women in different situations it would appear that there is a steadily increasing number of independently minded rural women. As long as they have sufficient support from their family and the community, it would seem that women are starting to embrace the responsibility and economic opportunities left by the absence of their husbands. This will undoubtedly continue in the future as more and more Chinese women are empowered to strive for independence and success of their own.

Corruption and Fox hunting under Xi...

Corruption and Fox hunting under Xi.

Now entering its second year, China`s anti-corruption drive is truly making progress and raising a few eyebrows internationally in both its depth and continued commitment to removing both the culture and perception of corruption in the country.


According to the Transparency International 2013 Global Corruption Perception Index (CPI), China is currently ranked 80 out of 177 countries, below South Africa and Brazil. Furthermore, out of the 28 economic powers included in the 2011 Bribe Payers Index Report, China ranked 27th, above only Russia. These figures paint a damning picture of the state of corruption in China, one which Xi is undoubtedly looking to change under his premiership. The long term aim of his anti-corruption drive is to reduce the level of Chinese corruption more in line with that of the country’s main economic rivals, namely the US in 19th place on the CPI.


China will establish a new anti-graft body to further strengthen its efforts to rout out corrupt officials. The plan for a new anti-graft agency was put forward by the Party committee of the Supreme People's Procuratorate (SPP). A vice-ministerial level, full-time member of the procuratorial committee will hold a concurrent post as head of the new anti-graft agency. This  new agency will further the work of the Central Committee for Discipline Inspection (CCDI), a secretive agency that leads the investigation of corrupt officials.


The numbers of investigations are impressive: in the first half of 2014, prosecutors investigated more than 25,000 individuals on suspicion of corruption, according to statistics released by the Supreme People's Procuratorate in July. Companies and public service groups supervised by the Communist Party of China and government departments will now face a new round of top-level disciplinary inspections amid China's anti-corruption drive.


The anti-corruption drive has not just been based at home. It has moved into the international sphere with the CCDI Operation Fox Hunt extended to arrest corrupt officials who have fled abroad. During the recent APEC meetings, Western governments were approached by Beijing to help find such officials and to recover money that has been spirited abroad to relatives. On 17th November, Xinhua news agency reported that during the 4 months of Operation Fox Hunt, the number of suspected fugitives arrested as part of the operation stands 288.


The effects of the anti-corruption drive are beginning to be felt both in China and abroad. With Chinese officials changing their past lavish spending habits due to fears of being tainted with accusations of corruption, Chinese government bank deposits have increased by a yearly average of almost 30% since early 2013, according to the BBC. However, this is taking a toll on China’s already slowing economy, causing an estimated reduction in growth of 0.6% this year: entire restaurant empires were built on a foundation of lavish spending by government officials hosting and toasting one another. It was exactly this sort of conspicuous consumption that Xi Jinping has correctly perceived as highlighting the disparity in wealth between the ruling class and China's working people.



Furthermore, the desperate scramble of officials to send their ill-gotten gains overseas has seen a rise in the already high levels of capital outflow from China. Indeed, the US-based non-profit group Global Financial Integrity estimates illegal cash out- flows from China amounted to some $2.83tn between 2005 and 2012. While this undoubtedly demonstrates the high cost of corruption, the level of legal cash outflows from China is also rising, with businesses and wealthy individuals investing their wealth overseas for fear of becoming embroiled in a corruption scandal. The Financial Times reports that during October within the period of a week, Anbang purchased the Waldorf Astoria in New York for $1.9b and Belgian insurance company Fidea. This is far from the only example, with some even predicting that this capital outflow will dwarf the gains from the anti-corruption drive.


The predicted losses to the Chinese economy reveal a great deal about the nature of the anti-corruption drive, in that it appears to be a genuine attempt to change the culture of the Communist Party, whatever the economic consequences. That said, there is always more to it than meets the eye. Since his assumption of the premiership, commentators have closely followed Xi’s grip on the party, highlighting instances where the anti-corruption drive may have been used as a disguise for the elimination of his rivals. Indeed, several of the main challengers to Xi’s rule, such as Bo Xilai and Zhou Yongkang were purged during the early stages of his premiership. However, the duration and depth of the campaign suggest that it goes beyond an attempt to consolidate Xi’s grip on the party, and is indeed a genuine attempt to clean up Chinese officialdom. Indeed, despite predictions of severe economic consequences, Xi has persevered and even furthered the campaign. According to China Daily, in the last 2 months alone 9 senior figures in the party have been subject to corruption allegations. These figures were:


11/17 Yu Yanshan, 49, head of the NEA's development and planning division

11/13 Feng Lixiang, former secretary of the Communist Party of China committee of the City of Datong, Shanxi province

11/06 Li Changgen, 57, a senior official of the Henan High People’s Court

11/06 Li Jiangong, the head of Bureau of Land and Resources in north China's Shanxi Province

11/05 Cao Jianliao, former deputy mayor of Guangzhou, Guangdong province

09/05 Liang Guoying The executive vice mayor of Dongguan city in Guangdong province

09/04 Bai Yun, head of the United Front Work Department of Shanxi Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC)

09/02 Ren Runhou, vice governor of north China's Shanxi Province

09/02 Tan Xiwei, a former senior legislator in Chongqing Municipality

Source China Daily Aug-Nov 2015


Xi’s anti-corruption drive has already seen many prominent figures fall, and is likely to see many more in the coming months. The long term impact of the campaign is uncertain, but it is clear that Xi’s motives go beyond just consolidating his rule; all appearances indicate a genuine effort to end the archetypal problem of Chinese corruption.


Alibaba leading the way Internationall...

Alibaba leading the way Internationally.

September the 19th marked a milestone in China’s Internet history, the day the Hangzhou based e-commerce giant Alibaba (NYSE: BABA), raised more than $25 billion in the largest IPO in history. Founder, Jack Ma, became China’s richest individual with an estimated net worth of $21.8 billion and the 17 other partners who invested in the company 15 years ago have made significant gains. As China’s internet economy grows we can expect more Ma`s to grab our attention.



Alibaba is the last of the big three Chinese Internet giants to IPO, but arguably has the most diverse collection of businesses with: Taobao, Tmall, Aliexpress and Aliyun amongst others. Its flagship C2C portal Taobao, features nearly a billion products and was one of the 20 most-visited websites globally in 2103. The complimentary Tmall is also a C2C platform but focusing on both domestic and global brand sales. Alipay is a third-party online payment platform with no transaction fees. It also provides an escrow service


Economist’s estimates internet related businesses will add between 0.5% and 1% of GDP growth to China’s economy every year till 2025. As the country re balances its economy away from real estate and manufacturing towards the domestic consumer the IT sector is flourishing: helped by the rapid growth of smart phones and a comprehensive nationwide communications network just currently expanding onto a 4G platform.



Recruitment is a vital area for new IT companies where attitudes are changing. Gone are the days when the brightest looked to the SEO`s to provide a stable career path. New graduates want to be part of companies such as Alibaba, Baidu and Tencent where they attract new talent not only with their flexible, youthful corporate culture but with the allure of stock options: just ask the 20,000 Alibaba employees who are eligible for shares.


The question now for companies such as Alibaba is whether, with their new found global exposure and deep pockets to match, they will continue to look toward the Chinese consumer to provide growth or if they will start to take tentative steps to becoming global companies where they remain marginalised.  Traditionally Chinese IT companies have localised international ideas for the domestic market and performed well against International competitors, however it’s a whole new game outside of China. Their success is possible, but the process of becoming an established global business requires both strong institutional support as well as an internationalised corporate culture.


Of all China’s internet companies Alibaba stands the best chance. With its dominant domestic market position: not only limited to online retail but also in online payment processing and cloud services it has a diverse infrastructure and knowledge base. It must be on the prowl for acquisitions in Silicon Valley to bring it an international edge to its possible expansion plans. As its first foray internationally the company is currently in talks with India’s Snapdeal.

Chinese-Russian cooperation in the econo...

Chinese-Russian cooperation in the economic sphere: old friends new partners.

Its tough to keep up with geo-political posturing in the modern world; however it’s clear that Asia is the new epicenter of Great power alliances. Recent months have seen: India and Japan draw closer politically, China court India with promises of much needed infrastructure investment, greater Russian Chinese economic cooperation. It is Russia however that is on the precipice of uncertaintanty of whether it is really an Asian power and whether it wishes to once again seek a strategic alliance with China in Asia.



President Putin’s state visit in May, amidst the Ukrainian crisis and the well-documented decline in Russia-West relations, might well have significant implications for the creation of a new world order, whilst not about the creation of a military-political bloc (which neither side have interests in re-kindling), it is seen as a response to the Western policy of attempting to contain both Russia and China.


Russia is embarking on a strategy of developing the Russian Far East by increasing its economic integration within East Asia. Russia’s goals in Asia include: the promotion of multipolarity (limiting the influence of the United States but also managing China’s rise), developing beneficial economic relations, having a visible presence in all major Asian institutions and minimizing the adverse impact of regional disputes.


Economically the relationship is fraught with difficulties. While China has now become Russia’s main trading partner, their bilateral trade was less than $100 billion in 2013, much lower than that between China and its major Western partners. Diversification is the key for Russia, limiting its exposure to any one block in terms of natural resources and opening new trade routes into Asia.  One such resource is Natural Gas where procurement from Russia is likely to reduce the so-called Asian gas premium and lower the market price for many Asian economies, this deal now appears to have come to fruition in the form of a 30-year, $400 billion deal between CNPC and Gazprom.



Of significance to the Gazprom deal is the relatively low price agreed for delivery: Russia’s is seeking ways to counter the feeling that Siberia is simply becoming China’s raw material backyard and the contract provides for the development of major infrastructure in Siberia.


Whilst Chinese officials make a show of treating their Russian counterparts as representatives of an equal great power, a status they deny India and Japan: in China’s “Silk Road” strategy, there is a growing tendency toward Chinese influence in the post-Soviet arena amongst the Central Asian Republics. This causes a dilemma for Moscow as to reconciling this influence with Putin’s strategic vision of Eurasian integration, whilst maintaining power parity with China.


With the convergence of their models of government and their national ideologies, Russian and Chinese leaders increasingly share a common conceptual framework that is distrustful of popular democracy and of unconstrained free market economics. Internationally they reinforce each other’s legitimacy and in the long term will inevitably draw closer both economically and politically. 


Pictorial: Treatment of ALS in China...

Pictorial: Treatment of ALS in China.

ALS awareness has recently been brought to people`s attention with the ice bucket challenge, globally raising an unprecedented 75 million USD for research into the disease. A specialized Chinese research and clinical application team at the Neurorestoratology center at Jingdong Zhongmei Hospital, headed by Professor Hongyun Huang, has been pioneering controversial treatments of central neural system diseases for the last decade: carrying out cell-based neuro-restorative therapies for spinal cord injury (SCI), motor neuron diseases (MNDs), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), cerebral palsy (CP) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Currently on their 2nd generation of neuro-restoration therapy, a multi-cell, multi-route treatment, Professor Huang has successfully treated thousands of patient: whilst promising no cure, he has brought greater levels of mobility and quality of life to sufferers.


The type of cells used vary according to the disorder but include: olfactory unsheathing cells, neural progenitor cells, Schwann cells, umbilical cord stromal cells, autologous bone marrow mesenchymal cells and autologous nasal olfactory cells. Which are delivered to the patient via brain and spinal cord injections, intrathecal implant by cervical puncture, thoracic puncture, lumbar puncture, cisterna magna puncture and intravascular injection.


The treatment, whilst yet to be proven by western scientific standards and explained fully by Professor Huang himself, still speak for themselves, overturning decades of convention that chronic spinal injury can never be treated.


Over a period of a few months Patricia Calvo followed a selection of Professor Huang`s patients as they received the treatments and saw the realities of being given back mobility that had eluded them for years.


For more on ALS please visit the ALS Association website.

Beijing, Jingdong Zhongmei Hospital.

All Images © Patricia Calvo




















It`s trade that fosters good neighbours...

It`s trade that fosters good neighbours not confrontation.

Over at least the past 25 years, the case for investing in China came with little in the way of political strings attached. That could now be changing.


Years of relative calm have suddenly given way to rising tensions all along China’s maritime borders. Friction is also growing between Beijing and Hong Kong, where the Central Government is taking on democracy activists ahead of the 2017 election of the territory’s chief executive. This is all occurring against a backdrop of a slowing economy as the debt-fuelled, investment- driven growth model which sustained GDP rates for the past 20 years runs out of steam.


The threat of a hard economic landing had always been the key concern about China. Investors now must weigh up the risks associated with a more assertive Chinese foreign policy, as well as a dramatic hardening of official attitudes on the mainland.
It’s not enough to blame this sudden shift on the appointment of Xi Jinping as head of the Communist Party at the end of 2012. A globally more assertive China is the product of a confluence of factors, including the country’s own historical experience and surging economic growth. Changes in the international order - not least the perceived decline of the west following the global financial crisis - have also helped change Beijing’s thinking.


Chinese scholars blame the U.S. for upsetting the regional status quo after President Barack Obama’s “pivot to Asia,” starting in 2011. U.S. attention had been dominated by the “War on Terror” for the previous decade, and the Obama White House’s attempt to refocus on Asia was seen in Beijing as an effort to contain a rising China. Obama denied that this was U.S. strategy throughout his high-profile visit to the region at the end of 2011. The president’s visits to the countries on China’s periphery, including historical rival Japan, were intended to send the message that the U.S. remains committed to keeping the peace in East Asia.


If they were also intended to send a message to Beijing to back down from its various territorial disputes in the region, then Obama’s trip was a failure.


If the nationalists hogging internet message boards and composing editorials for the Global Times newspaper had their way, conflict in the Pacific would begin tomorrow. The increase in the official Chinese military budget has exceeded official GDP growth rates for years, though analysts believe the People’s Liberation Army still isn’t ready to adequately project power beyond China’s borders.


That hasn’t stopped long-simmering territorial disputes between China and its neighbors from deteriorating into open bickering. China and Vietnam are trading accusations about incidents of vessels ramming each other in the South China Sea, while the Japanese and US air forces complain of Chinese jets buzzing their planes in the skies above the East China Sea. China’s neighbours accuse Beijing of throwing its weight around, refusing to accept arbitration and risking open conflict.


This shift in perceptions about China can’t all be blamed on Xi Jinping, but his appointment to lead the country has brought with it a notable hardening in China’s foreign and domestic policy forgetting the adage that it`s trade that fosters good neighbours and not confrontation.


The optimistic view is that China, now the world’s second biggest economy and on track to be the largest by the middle of the decade, is attempting to redraw the lines of a post-World War II settlement that it wasn’t given a say in the first time around. An alternative view is that a newly assertive People’s Liberation Army, bolstered by China’s economic rise, with the civilian government in tow and cheered on by nationalist voices, is looking to settle historical scores in a dangerous game which risks open conflict.


It’s too early to say with any certainty what Xi Jinping intends, though it’s clear that his vision for China includes a more assertive stance overseas and less political dissent at home.


Xi’s domestic policy has so far been marked by a sweeping anti-corruption campaign, which has surprised both for its length and breadth. It’s not just corrupt officials and military officers who have suffered. Political activists, lawyers and journalists have been swept up in the campaign. Simultaneously terrorist attacks tied to Uyghur separatist groups have resulted in a more visible security presence on the streets of many cities.


This increase in political tensions hasn’t had much impact yet from an investment point of view. For now, business executives in China see the country’s deteriorating relations with its neighbours as an unwanted distraction. Meanwhile, the anti-corruption crackdown has only served to expose the dangers of basing a China business model on the practice of gift-giving, as some luxury brands have discovered to their cost.


Businesses operating here would rather focus on long-standing gripes about market access, unfavorable treatment and an opaque and arbitrary regulatory framework. But the investment case for China becomes harder to make as the onshore market cools without any corresponding improvement in the operating environment.


It used to be a given that the Communist Party would not threaten its economic development by challenging Asia’s long-standing balance of power. The Communist Party intends to bring China’s urbanization rate up to around 75% from the current 52% over the coming years, and that process requires a still-intense focus on domestic policy and avoidance of territorial entanglements.


But that view has been shaken in recent months by increasingly violent clashes between China and its various neighbours. The anniversary of the centenary of the start of the First World War has resulted in more than a few comparisons between modern China and Kaiser Wilhelm’s disastrous attempt to push Germany up the rankings of the Great Powers. If China could only resolve it`s identity crisis and become so much more than simply an enviable development model, it would find a more receptive Asia to its leadership ambitions and remove uncertainty about where the region is headed.


A direct policy response to Sino-African...

A direct policy response to Sino-African relations or a genuine new chapter in the U.S-Africa relations?

It is fair to assert that it has taken America decades to realise the true potentials of an emerging Africa, and that she is only doing so on the heels of growing Chinese influence on the continent. This assertion has led many experts to believe that the well-publicised upcoming US-Africa summit in August is another opportunity for the US to re-strategize and come up with policies that will counter and contain the growing Chinese presence and influence on the continent. Truth be told; there’s growing concern within the corridors of power in most western nations notably; France and the United States that, giving the speed at which China is penetrating Africa, China could soon start enjoying the level of political influence in Africa that was historically held by France and the United States. With this in mind, both countries have had to go back to the drawing board and drastically redesign their African policies, with each one of them emerging with different strategies and policy options to contain the Chinese expansion and grip on the continent. The forthcoming US-Africa summit could be seen as yet another opportunity to re-engage with Africa. However, for this to yield any fruits, many looming questions must be sincerely scrutinised and answered.



Is America stepping in late? Can the Americans match the Chinese success in curbing and nurturing Africa at the same time? Can they move in with full packages like the Chinese do? Have they got the extra money to spend like China? Can the Americans establish relationships based on friendship and mutual understanding rather than the tutor-student relationship that is being perceived by many Africans? Can the Americans compromise on their values for democracy and human rights in favour of a “cordial and friendly relationship”? What of the non-interference policy being advocated and practised by China? A well-known and highly adorable sweetener in the Sino-African relations has no match, especially with proponents and advocates of democracy and the respect of Human rights. With a capitalist system in place, how will America create and bank role state owned corporations to take on big and visible projects in Africa in return for natural resources?


To be able to answer the above questions, one will need a full understanding of the foundations on which these relationships with Africa are established and how they have evolved over time.


It is evident that China’s huge and expanding presence and success in Africa is not by chance or luck. It has been a well thought and worked out strategy in the making for many years. A Chinese foreign minister Li Zhaoxing once stated that “today’s Sino-Africa relationship is viewed by both sides as deep-rooted and forged in years of mutual support “. Well, that is the Chinese narrative, and what they do not also tell the world is that it is an unbalanced relationship in which one out-powers the other in everything, leaving the weaker with little or no bargaining power or a better alternative.


Early foreign policy reforms embarked on in the early 90s by the Chinese government regarding Africa can be credited for the country’s success on the continent. As early on as 1995, the commerce ministry, on orders from the Chinese state council was instructed to reform its Africa policies, prioritising any link between aid and trade.  Creating the Forum on China–Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in 2000 was a clear indication that there was a true commitment within the highest level of Chinese government to foster bilateral trade and relations with Africa. The cornerstone of this commitment was the Chinese believe in the continent and willingness to take risk while the rest of the world’s investment community watched from a safety distance. Note, FOCAC was launched in October 2000; five months after the US congress had approved the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA).


Via partnership programs with host countries, the Chinese government has help fund multimillion dollar projects across the continent, most in infrastructure ranging from road construction, power plants to rail ways. To many Africans, this is the kind of investment and development aid the continent has been yearning for and not development aid in the form of wheat and flour or digging wells. Even if the oil and other natural resources are being siphoned to China, they are at least leaving behind visible investments. 



So far Africa seems quite comfortable with that relationship with China, but not to the satisfaction of the US, who sees China’s presence in Africa as being exploitative and on many occasions has had to voice these concerns openly. In 2012, Hillary Clinton, the then US secretary of state while on an African tour warned Africans against unnamed “outsiders” coming to “extract the wealth of Africa for themselves, leaving nothing or very little behind.” It was obvious who the unnamed outsider was. China feeling guilty, quickly responded by accusing the United States of seeking to sow discord between China and Africa while keen to reap benefits for itself from the booming continent. It is indeed a battle between two elephants.


America and other proponents of democracy believe China has no plans to halt its expansion on the continent even when democracy and humans rights are at risk. But fairly speaking, if one was to do a survey in many African countries on what they will choose between visible development and democracy, we all can guess the outcome. Very few will want to compromise any development initiative or project (even with known long term exploitative objectives) for democracy. That is not to say democracy does not have its place.  Both should go hand in hand. America seems trapped in a dilemma, given that on one hand they do over emphasised democracy; while on the hand continue to support some autocratic and in some cases military regimes on the continent. These mixed messages have not been doing America any good.


The African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) approved by the US congress and passed into law in 2000 was a golden opportunity for the United States to re-engage Africa and take over the front seat in piloting the continent’s growth. However, the lack of commitment and the limitations with AGOA explains why 14 years down the line; the US is still trying to catch up. First and foremost AGOA which granted preferential duty-free and largely quota-free access to the U.S. market for some 1,800 products from 41 sub-Saharan African countries was a bold and a major step taken by the US to engage with Africa on the trade front, however the details of the program lacked the ingredients required to enhance and kick start growth on the continent.  Secondly AGOA highly publicised as a program aimed at encouraging exports from Africa, failed woefully in encouraging new product lines being exploited and exported to America. There was hardly any investment in infrastructures to boost new productivity, whether be it in the garment industry or basket weaving.


The program ended up only facilitating exports in products that would have been exported with or without AGOA. For example, 2008 figures show that African countries exported over $66 billion worth of products to the United States, an increase of almost 30% from 2007. But more than $62 billion, or 94%, came from oil and gas and minerals, products that would have been exported with or without trade preferences. Similar in 2013, oil and petroleum products accounted for over 80% of the exports to the United States from African countries. Hopefully, the shortcomings of the AGOA program that is expected to come to an end in 2015 will be used as a yard stick and learning curve for future engagements with Africa.  America had the opportunity in Africa, but lost it to China.


Another bone of contention between the US-Africa relationship is the perception held by many Africans with regards to the Washington consensus. For close to three decades today, the market fundamentalism or neoliberalism (Washington consensus) being implemented by the World Bank, and her sister institution the International Monetary Fund has had very little noticeable impact in developing the African continent and alleviating poverty via economic growth. It is again fair to assert that both institutions failed to jump start the continent’s economy. Many [1]studies have concluded that the strings and conditions attached to most development aid under the Washington Consensus were dampening rather than encouraging economic growth on the African continent. Even still in cases where lesser strings and conditions were attached, the implementation mechanism of policies designed in Washington had very little impact, since they often failed to directly address the problems and challenges facing the struggling masses.


The Washington consensus on a grand scale agreed and encouraged developing countries to export more of their natural resources including cash crops to international markets, so as to raise funds for servicing debts. Countries implementing the Washington Consensus (structural adjustment and stabilisation programs) were often forced to cut spending on vital sectors such as health, education and development so as to meet up with debt repayment plans.


This left many impoverished African countries with no glimpse of hope to ever industrialise and diversify their economies.


Many impoverished countries were often encouraged to concentrate on the production of cash crops similar to other developing countries, which obviously resulted to a surplus in the market and hence leading to a drastic fall in prices on those products and commodities, this to the benefit of the richer and developed nations. Fairly speaking, the Washington Consensus, from its inception was never designed to enhance development, economic growth and fully alleviate poverty in the developing countries. In a real world, it was/is a well-crafted debt creation and collection tool. The only thing the Washington Consensus succeeded in doing was widening the gap between the rich and poor, and creating new oligarchs in countries that were implementing privatisation programs.


Twisting the arms of developing countries to carry out recommended structural reforms at the expense of key functions of the state was never going to be growth enhancing. This may be explains why for over a quarter of a century, the World Bank and the IMF despite spending a chunk of cash, have failed to deliver tangible results in Africa.


Contrary to these conditional and strings development aid, the Chinese aid comes with no strings or conditions attached to it. However encoded within the aid packages are pseudo long term exploitative objectives whose adverse impacts are often too blur to see. The perception being portrait by China is that, they have agreed to deal with African countries as partners in development rather than the master-servant relationship practiced by the western nations in Africa. As per the Chinese narrative, it is a give and take kind of relationship.


The coming of the Chinese with their new model, aka the Chinese full package (Money, Technical expertise and protection from international sanctions) changed the balance. The complete package, from the sound of it is always too good to not tempt many African leaders, especially those with murky human right records.  But the big question is, to what extend can these countries rely on China for protection in the event of a unilateral action, say from one of the super powers? For now, and lessons from recent events have shown that the probability of China stepping in and preventing a military action with the use of  counter force is close to, if not zero per cent. In that full package, their guaranteed protection ends at blocking UN Security Council resolutions against countries in which their interest is at stake. But as soon as the Security Council is by passed, China has proven not to have the guts to stand in the way. Sadly in some instances, they have quickly switched sides to get closer to the winning group so as to secure their interest when the new group takes over.



Possible policy options if the US-Africa summit fails to achieve its goals


If the summit fails to achieve its defined goals, the US will be left with no option but to concentrate on hotspots where there are conflicts, since it is evident that China often shies away from mingling in internal conflicts. With its military strength, which is also its biggest asset and export, the US will stand to benefit by increasing the exportation of this asset to countries rich in natural resources.


One way to achieve this will be to promote and expand the war on terrorism, so as to militarily engage those countries.


To a lesser extent, encourage espionage to foment new conflicts on the continent, so to have a reason for intervention in favour of a regime that will be pro-American.


Form new alliances and strengthen existing ones with other disgruntled stakeholders such as France who are losing grounds on the continent, for a joint resistance against the Chinese expansion on the continent.


What America should do


It is not yet too late. There is still a void in the industrialisation sector across Africa and the US has another chance to fill that gap. If the Americans will want to remain relevant in Africa for a foreseeable future, then they will have to deviate or shift their strategy from the heavy military oriented interest to a rather economic interest.


Cut down its military assistance to the continent and redirect the resources to visible growth enhancing infrastructure projects.  It is pointless to carry on providing military assistance and training regimes that in most cases are the very ones creating the greatest problems. Not cutting down on this will imply that, the US will carry on expanding its military presence on the continent via the Africa Command Centre (AFRICOM), while China on the other hand will carry on expanding its economic presence. It is obvious which one will pay off in the long term.


Rather than embarked on exaggerating the security risk of the continent and scaring off potential American investors, the US should promote and encourage investors to move into the continent and invest in the continents’ infrastructure, so as to turn Africa into the new factory of the World. There is enough cheap and available labour to run that new factory. Infrastructure should be built to take on the production that is currently being outsourced to Asia, in particular China. It will be beneficial for America to have an alternative, and hence reduce the heavy reliance on China who is at the same time a real rival.


With over 200 million people aged between 15 and 24 (the youth bracket), Africa has the youngest population in the world, an asset which the US can exploit for its consumer based economy.   With that youth population size, it is evident that cheap and sustainable labour can be sourced from the continent.



After this summit, Obama should multiply the number of trade visits to Africa during his remaining years in the Whitehouse, taking along with him large delegations of potential investors. The era of the “BIG America” perception is fading out, so it will be a miscalculation to seat back and send low level government officials on behalf of the president and expect much in return from the African head of states. Taking the lead and championing such trips will delineate a new level of commitment and readiness to do business. A Long term commitment to invest in key sectors of the economies will be key to the success of this summit.


The US must stop leaning on the risk factor in Africa, because others are taking the risk and succeeding. One of the reasons why security is an issue is because of the huge youth unemployment. Dangerous sects and extremist are exploiting this high rate of unemployment to their benefit.  A case in hand is the dangerous extremist sect Boko Haram originating from North Nigeria. The shrinking of the major garment in industry in that part of the country left many youth unemployed and hence vulnerable to Boko Haram recruiters. Therefore seating back and relying on a military response is not an option.


From a Pan Africanist perspective


Africa has a lot to offer and has complete packages as well, which are; expanding markets, cheap labour, and natural resources. They deserve the full attention and respect from their counterparts.It is obvious today that the opportunities in Africa and its potentials far outweigh any challenges the continent might be facing. Now the fastest growing continent in the world with growth estimated at 7 to 10 per cent and home to 7 of the 10 fastest growing economies in the world; Africa really has a lot to offer. The continent must stop portraying itself as a victim and the weakest link during negotiations. To carry on wearing the victims’ hat at the negotiation table is self-defeating.


The continent has what it takes to be in control now and to define the rules of the game on the continent. External actors should not be the ones setting the rules of the game being played on the continent.  Despite all the odds and criticism, the coming of the Chinese gave the continent an alternative and a backup to cut loose of the conditionality regime that had governed the continent for many years. It has repositioned Africa and given the continent some leverage over its bargaining power. However, China should not be blindly embraced. Africa must plan now for the long term and its leaders must be conscious of the fact that whatever arrangements they make today, their impacts will determine the future of the continent. Externalising our economic growth and surrendering it to external actors to design and control the pace of that growth is not healthy for the continent and that format is not sustainable.


Africa has one more chance in its history to correct the errors of the past by clinging on these new opportunities, exploiting them to its benefit and get the continent ready for the next wave. Though there is so much interest on the continent and somewhat inflated speculations about its growth potentials, the continent is at a cross road and any policy blunder now will be very costly for its’ future.  The purported adoration for the continent will not carry on forever so it must act wisely.  If it squanders these opportunities then it will have but itself to blame.


Addressing the high rate of youth unemployment on the continent should be given a priority. Reducing youth unemployment will tackle a majority of the security problems while at the same time creating a consumer base, which will in turn guarantee a sustainable economic growth.


And finally the need to boost intra-regional trade within Africa and speed up the process towards a single trading union is more important now than ever before.


This article was originally published in the African Policy Forum and is reproduced here with the permission of the author. Eric Acha is a policy analyst and the Executive Director of the Africa Policy Forum.


Of course China Innovates, just look...

Of course China Innovates, just look at the Smartphone sector.

China being the worlds largest Smartphone market has invigorated entrepreneurialism and brought to the fore some of the world's most innovative new companies - particularly in field of mobile technology. Relatively new companies such as One plus One, Smartisan, MeiZu and of course XiaoMi are increasing research and development spending by up to 20% a year and bringing to market some incredible new devices set to change the established order. Not only competing on price but also on specifications and design, these companies are set to become global names as they begin an aggressive global expansion policy, particularly in the emerging markets of Latin America, India, Africa and Asia.


China produced some 870 million mobile phones in 2013, with some 70% of these being manufactured by domestic companies catering to the vast lower end of the market, typically less than 2,000 rmb (330 usd).  However with the domestic market predicted to slow in 2014 the emphasis will be on delivering higher specification handsets to both telecoms operators and non contract purchasers as well as tapping into foreign markets, in particular those in Asia.

Not to ignore established companies such as Huawei, Coolpad, K-Touch and Lenovo we instead focus on those companies we believe bring Apple-esq build quality and design to their products but at half the price of their foreign competitors.






Jack Wong, Founder, Chairman and Chief Architect: Founded Zhuhai based MEIZU in 2003 as an MP3 player company and began smartphone production in 2006. Committed to developing high-end smartphones since then, they have focused on developing innovative and user-friendly smartphones for consumers. With more than 1,000 employees and 600 retail stores as well as 100 patents in China, the company has built a global presence in Hong Kong, Israel, Russia, Saudi Arabia and Ukraine.



One Plus One



OnePlus is a technology startup committed to bringing the best possible technology to users around the world. Created around the mantra ‘Never Settle’, OnePlus creates beautifully designed devices with premium build quality. OnePlus currently sells directly to global buyers via its website in 15 countries - Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, United Kingdom, and the United States. However the purchase process seems to be a little trickier than expected.






Xiaomi (little rice) is a Beijing based mobile internet company dedicated to creating an all aspect user experience. Founded in 2010 by Lei Jun, the company has fast become one of the leading tech firms in China. The company is currently valuated at over 10 billion USD and has over 3000 employees. With its new international headquarters in Singapore the company has already landed in Malaysia, Philippines and India, and also has plans to enter Indonesia, Thailand, Russia, Turkey, Brazil and Mexico. During Q2 of 2014, they overtook the top spot from Samsung in terms of shipments in China. Competing primarily on price and design: the newly released Xiao Mi 4 has the same specifications as a Samsung Galaxy S5 at less than half the price



Xiaomi's main portfolio of products includes:

  1. - Xiaomi Phones: high quality and performance Android devices
  2. - MIUI ROM: highly customizable ROM that can be flashed across multiple Android devices
  3. - MiTalk: a preeminent messaging application
  4. - MiBox: A smart set-top box the enriches your TV experience






Founded in early 2012 the Beijing start-up, Smartisan, is both a manufacturer and OS/Android UI design company. It`s name is derived from ‘smart’ and ‘artisan’ combined into a word, meaning "intelligent mobile phone era". Headed by entrepreneur Luo Yonghao, the company is all about the details less than affordability, in both it`s OS and phone design. It`s flagship T1 is a sleek, predominantly glass exterior, higher-end handset using the Android-based Smartisan OS.



Chinese manufacturing plants have been producing foreign brand phones for most of the last decade, so the technical know-how is well established. Combined with the massive pool of design and development talent, domestic brands are now coming to the fore both on the international and domestic stage. They are no longer willing to compete simply on price but taking on the established OEM`s in terms of design and innovation.


With the shift in demand for smart connected devices moving from developed markets to emerging markets (its is estimated one billion devices will be delivered to emerging markets in 2014), Chinese OEM`s seem ideally placed to meet this demand. Although the double-digit growth of smartphones and tablets in emerging countries is a driving force for market entry, the low selling price and margins mean OEM`s will struggle to meet the demands of profitably.


Electric Vehicles, a strategic emerging...

Electric Vehicles, a strategic emerging industry.

China is already the world's largest manufacturer of electric bicycles and electric tricycles but only 6,900 domestic-brand electric cars (EV`s) were sold in China in 2013, according to a new report on China’s EV production and sales. That’s in contrast to China’s total car sales for 2013 of 22 million, surpassing 15.6 million in the US. Little demand for EVs means the nation is far off it`s target, set in 2012, to sell 500,000 electric cars in 2015 and five million in 2020. The one caveat being in the booming demand for electric busses. Not to be perturbed the Government has released new incentives to promote what it sees as a strategic emerging industry.


Subsidies will continue for at least the next 6 years and from September the 10% purchase tax will be waived on all new EV`s. Whilst the main factor for the slow take up on EV`s is their price, lack of charging facilities and private investment have also been identified as crucial factors. With new partnerships, Tesla is set to build 40 new Supercharger stations across China.


Aside from the pricey Tesla, no foreign car company is selling an EV in China at the moment. Nissan plans to sell a Chinese version of its all-electric Leaf, which will be called the Donfeng-Nissan Venucia e30, in September. The top selling passenger EV in China last year was the BAIC E150 (pictured below), according to the Paglee report. The Ford Fiesta-sized car starts at a pricey RMB 195,000 (US$31,700) for the electric model, as opposed to just RMB 58,000 (US$9,430) for the identically-bodied petrol model with a 1.3-liter engine.



The Warren Buffet-backed BYD is struggling to generate interest in its growing range of EV`s. The auto-maker, known for its battery technology, aims to triple sales of EVs to 8,000 units this year, including 2,000 buses. But most of its electric cars will be sold to taxi fleets.




2014’s EV sales in China could get a much-needed boost from cash incentives put in place in last year and the new announcements. China’s Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) introduced hefty government subsidies to buyers of all-electric or plug-in hybrid cars. The largest subsidy option, of RMB 60,000 (US$9,450), is available to buyers of all-electric cars with a range of over 250 kilometers; the smallest is RMB 35,000 (US$5,690) for plug-in hybrid vehicles that go for over 50 kilometers. These are available only to buyers of domestic-brand cars. Many cities around China have also implemented local incentives in addition to the national subsidies to promote electric vehicles in their cities:


  • Beijing: Same as national subsidy + free license plate
  • Shanghai: CN¥40,000 ($6,504) + free license plate (a CN¥70,000 [$11,382] value)
  • Guangzhou: CN¥10,000 ($1,626) + free license plate
  • Shenzhen: Same as national subsidy
  • Hangzhou: Same as national subsidy
  • Hefei: CN¥20,000 ($3,252)
  • Changchun: CN¥35,000 ($5,691) to CN¥45,000 ($7,317)


But fundamental problems remain. One is that China’s urban middle class prefer foreign brands. The top-selling three models in China last year were the locally-manufactured versions of the Ford Focus, VW Lavida, and Buick Excelle. Another is that most urban residents in China live in gated apartment communities, meaning people have no personal garage in which to charge an EV. Homeowners in Shanghai can apply for installation of private charging facilities, but they must actually own a parking space inside their compound – which not all property owners do.


The Shanghai Daily reported earlier this year that Shanghai Power Company has received 140 applications for home-based charging ports, but has so far given the go-ahead for just 30 of them. These charging stations can cost as much as RMB 50,000 (US$8,000), which eradicates much of the savings people make from the EV subsidy. A further barrier is that not all real estate companies are open to such modifications being made to parking spots.


Beijing municipal authorities have published a ‘2014 to 2017 action plan’ for electric vehicles, according to Tencent Tech. The initiative centers around building 10,000 charging facilities across the capital by 2017. The first batch of 1,000 will be positioned within a five-kilometer radius of the city center, focused on major transport hubs. But what of the nation’s other cities? Only once a city has a charging infrastructure that’s even larger than its network of petrol stations might EV`s stand a chance of being seen as a viable alternative to petrol driven cars.

E-commerce & online payment trends for...

E-commerce & online payment trends for 2014.

In a tech market that is moving as quickly as China`s, spotting the latest trends as they develop is crucial to reaching consumers and capturing sales. As of the first half of this year we have seen some interesting developments in both the sites that consumers use and how they pay for products. In China you can forget PayPal and Credit Cards its all about the likes of Alipay and Tenpay.

Only about 1 in 4 Chinese people own a credit card and they certainly don't use them to purchase goods on Tmall or Taobao, instead preferring to use one of the online payment services as below:


Payment Method Market Share
Alipay 48.7%
Tenpay 19.4%
Union Pay 11.2%
99Bill 6.7%
China PnR 5.8%
YeePay 3.4%
Huanxun IPS 2.9%
Others 1.9%

% transaction volumes in 2013, according to iResearch


China is certainly embracing e-commerce with enthusiasm: advertising from e-commerce companies and websites are filling every available space. Logistics companies are growing exponentially with deliverymen on bikes, trikes and vans lugging packages around every corner of the major cities. It would be interesting to survey how many office hours are lost annually to e-commerce shopping.



The rise of WeChat and the fall of Weibo.

Weibo continues to lose popularity among China’s netizens with users abandoning it in favor of WeChat. A couple of reasons for this being the tightening of registration requirements for Weibo (requiring real ID`s) along with the appeal to users who prefer a combination of Twitter-like communication with a native mobile chat app experience.



For companies the prevalence of fake Weibo accounts has taken away the allure of gaining “1 million followers’ since the current going rate is 5 RMB for 1,000 fans and combined with its limited functionality companies are now looking at other platforms to engage consumers. WeChat on the other continues to innovate and improve, now allowing you to pay for some services, call a cab or even make purchases.  WeChat has proven to be a superior marketing platform for business: merchants can advertise their products and send coupons by messaging directly to their subscribers.



Possibly the most significant development to watch will be the proliferation of more decentralized consumer finance integrated directly into smartphones. In recent months, China’s web giants, Baidu, Alibaba and Tencent have been applying for financial services licenses to be issued by the government. That will allow those companies to offer the same services that the banks do: savings portfolios, loans, insurance, and payment methods. Such new services would include savings and investment in funds like Alibaba’s Yuebao and Baidu’s Baifa, microfinance and peer-to-peer lending.



But who will process these payments: Alipay v`s Tenpay v`s Baidu.

Alibaba was the first to introduce its hugely popular Alipay system that today accounts for about 50% of all online transactions. It is currently the system used for buying products at the most popular online shopping sites and most importantly is trusted by consumers. However hot on its heals is Tenpay by Tencent which thanks to the popularity of Tencent’s WeChat platform, is projected to grow beyond that of Alipay due to its integration with the platform. Not to be left out Baidu was a late entrant to online payments with its Baidu Wallet. It focuses on mobile payments and the service will be integrated with other Baidu platforms and its 14 apps. Considering its 600 million users this should form a solid base for the system.




With the continuing expansion of China`s 4G network smartphone users are experiencing faster connections and more bandwidth meaning the ability to receive richer content, such as HD videos, as well as faster loading times for ecommerce sites and apps. This can only translate into an even wider adoption of e-commerce, which is completely mobilized. A Ministry of Industry and Information Technology forecast, which regulates China’s internet, stated that it aims to double the value of China`s e-commerce sales to RMB 18 trillion (USD 2.86 trillion) by the end of 2015 which would imply there is ample room for growth for payment provides, E-commerce sites and the logistics companies that support them.



Vast amounts of venture capital has poured into the Chinese online retail industry over the last few years and we are now seeing the effects. With a current estimated 250 million e-shoppers and an annual increase of 30 million new users, China e-commerce market is something not to be ignored.


A diversified policy towards Africa...

A diversified policy towards Africa.

China’s policy towards Africa over the last year has shown several new trends that illustrate Beijing’s evolving priorities and strategies in the continent that will have significant implications for African Nations.

Peace & Security in Africa.


In an unusual shift in policy, China has assertively enhanced its direct involvement in Africa’s security affairs. Two months into Xi Jing ping`s reign, Beijing unprecedentedly dispatched 170 PLA combat troops to the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Mali. This was in contrast to China`s policy of only contributing non combat troops to UN missions. It remains to be seen whether this move changes the PLA`s operating principle of “no combat troops on foreign soil”. China’s choice in dispatching combat troops for the first time in recent history does suggest rising interests, enhanced commitment and a direct role in maintaining peace and security of Africa.

In a further unprecedented and surprising move, China under Xi engaged in open intervention in the South Sudan conflict through direct mediation. In 2013, China’s envoy for African affairs, Ambassador Zhong Jianhua, paid no less than 10 visits to Africa to coordinate positions and mediate in the South Sudan issue. Again, in January 2014, in a rare display of overt political intervention, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi publicly called for an immediate end of hostilities in South Sudan. At Ethiopia’s invitation, Wang Yi traveled to Addis Ababa to meet with rebel and government delegations. He openly urged “immediate cessation of hostilities and violence,” and publicly called for the international powers to back the Ethiopian-led mediation efforts. Given China’s considerable oil stake in South Sudan (China imported nearly 14 million barrels of oil from South Sudan in the initial 10 months of 2013), many believe that China is gradually abandoning its long-term “non-interference” principle to protect its overseas economic interests.

Under Xi Jinping, China has continued its naval missions in the Gulf of Aden whilst enhancing its security cooperation with Djibouti on such matters as local logistical supplies and emergency assistance. China has dispatched a total of 16 ships to the region and escorted over 5,300 ships.



China’s increasing direct involvement in the peace and security affairs of Africa is also reflected in its rising financial and military contribution to the main regional organization—the African Union (AU)—to help boost its security role in the continent. In 2013, China provided $1 million in assistance to the AU to support its mediation and coordination efforts in the Mali conflict. It has also provided military material assistance to African nations involved in the AU peacekeeping missions under the same framework.

China’s rising involvement in Africa’s security affairs is motivated by multiple considerations: primarily the instability and conflicts in Africa have increasingly become a direct challenge to China’s economic presence in Africa. China has reflected on its expensive lesson during the Libyan civil war in 2011, and is known attempting to take the initiative in preempting similar situations. Equally crucial is President Xi Jinping’s desire to build China’s leadership role and image on the international stage, peace and security issues in Africa being the perfect platform for such a goal.

New aspects of Chinese Economic Cooperation with Africa.

China has expanded its financing to Africa. In a little over a year, China has issued over $10 billion in loans to African nations, and promised a further $20 billion to be leant before 2015. The emphasis of these loans lies in China’s new priority of financing infrastructure, agricultural and manufacturing industries in Africa, a strategy that shifts away from its traditional investment in Africa’s extractive industries.


China is further strengthening its cooperation with African nations on developing their manufacturing industries. In the case of Ethiopia, the country is trying to become the center for manufacturing in Africa based on Chinese investment. This would serve to facilitate a shift in China’s own position in the world supply chain and transfer some of its manufacturing industries to Africa, which is eager for industrialization. Whilst this does not necessarily indicate an abandonment of the energy and natural resources Africa has to offer, it does suggest that China is trying to diversify its investment in Africa in pursuit of new investment models whilst defusing criticisms on China’s “exploitation” of African resources.


Diversifying the Chinese-African Political relationship.

In separate strategy to improve China’s image in Africa, Xi Jinping`s government is presently eagerly engaging the African media to propagate China’s virtues and beneficial investments in the continent. Under the “China-Africa People to People Friendship Action” plan, Chinese embassies across Africa are seeking collaborations with African NGO`s and have implemented dozens of projects. Although these projects are primarily implemented by NGO`s, they serve to diversify China’s aid model in Africa and promote exchanges and cooperation with society.

During his first year in office, Xi Jinping`s government has demonstrated a major new and diversified policy towards Africa and we wait to see the evolving relationship between the two.


Marketing Case studies: Middle Class...

Marketing Case studies: Middle Class Mum`s.

With another 200 Million Chinese people expected to join the middle class by 2025, who will be making the purchasing decisions in these household and what will they be buying?


It`s the mothers. The highest percentage of a Chinese family’s disposable income is spent on their child after that it's the household. Mothers, by and large, decide how that money is spent and what brands they spend it on. This means that they control a very large portion of China consumer spending which is often much larger than their husband`s purchasing power. Any company attempting to sell consumer goods in China must understand this demographic and how they think. But what are the top priorities for mothers?



Health, Education, Household goods & Cars is what we believe mothers care about. Whilst middle class consumers have rising purchasing power and are increasingly willing to pay more for higher quality, brand names, and differentiated features, they are still price sensitive and recognizing who is doing the purchasing is essential to success in the marketplace. Brands need to connect emotionally and forge a strong brand position.


Health. The expansion of the middle class is not just stimulating investment in private hospitals but also in dental services, cosmetic specialties, rehabilitation services and elderly care. Spending that would previously have been seen as a luxury items is becoming a standard cost of living for the middle class. Patients usually want to go to clinics attached to the highest-reputation hospitals and private health insurance is now a necessity for many families to facilitate this.


Education. In a country as populated as China it`s all about differentiating yourself for the other thousands of equally qualified people and with the one child policy still in force the child is the center of the family. Academic achievement reflects successful parenting and tiger mothers often only allow their children to engage in activities that would help further their academic ambitions: Exam preparation classes, Foreign language lessons, Arts and music classes, role play centers for social education and physical exercises. No expense is too great to further the potential of the families child.


Household goods. Buying habits are changing in a subtle shift away from a focus on ‘Value for money” to quality and value added goods that have a track record for good safety. As urbanization accelerates, consumer spending is becoming more like that of the West’s middle class. Urban Chinese are shopping to meet emotional needs, driving a skyrocketing demand for middle-class goods, food, and entertainment.


Cars.  Nothing says you have made it better than a car. Demand simply keeps on rising for both domestic and foreign brands with China becoming BMW`s biggest market in 2013.  Increasingly it is women who now make the final decision about which car to purchase and forefront in their minds is Quality & Safety.




As marketers focus on China’s middle class they will also have to prepare to serve an even more affluent upper tier of that demographic which, in many cases, will be located outside of China’s first-tier cities. According to consulting firm McKinsey, China will soon undergo a shift from its current “mass middle class” to a new category of upper-middle-class Chinese consumers. Calling this cohort the “new mainstream,” the firm identifies them as consumers with household incomes between ¥106,000 and ¥229,000 ($16,000-$34,000). Perhaps even more striking, their numbers will swell from just 14 percent of urban households today to 54 percent by 2022, according to McKinsey’s estimates. It is not uncommon for women to keep the family bank accounts in their own names and give their husbands a weekly allowance hence it will be the mothers of this new mainstream that will be holding the purse strings and the demographic that must be catered to. Chinese women are emerging as one of the most confident bodies of consumers in the world. And they have the money to keep on spending.


Pictorial: China pre-1900.

Pictorial: China pre-1900.

A selection of incredible photographs from China Pre-1900 showing both the ordinary lives of Chinese people as well as the Empress Dowager Cixi and Foreign troops sent to quell the Boxer Rebellion. The imgaes are taken form the collections of: Albert Khan (1860-1940), John Thompson (1837-1921) and Jonathon Goforth (1859-1936) & China Magazine.

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